The area of cultivated land within the Empire was extended and food became cheaper; between 718 and c. 800 the corn (wheat) production of Thrace trebled. In 1931–1934, she received the same eight 75 mm guns as Bretagne did, and in 1940, three quadruple mounts of 13.2 mm guns were fitted. [31][32], Constantine was responsible for the creation of a small central army of fully professional soldiers, the imperial tagmata (literally: 'the regiments'). Cognate: 935 basileús – a king (sovereign); often referring to Christ who is "the King of kings" (Rev 19:16), i.e. She was broken up for scrap outside Toulon the following year. [1], The Bretagne class were replacements for the battleships Carnot, Charles Martel and Liberté. Constantine's major goal in his eastern campaigns seems to have been to forcibly gather up local Christian populations from beyond his borders in order to resettle Thrace. [34][35][36], The fiscal administration of Constantine was highly competent. [12][13] Artabasdos, having fled the capital, was apprehended at the fortress of Pouzanes in Anatolia, probably located to the south of Nicomedia. However, under Constantine the Empire had gone on the offensive against the Arabs after over a century of largely defensive warfare. The council confirmed the status of Mary as Theotokos (Θεοτόκος), or 'Mother of God', upheld the use of the terms "saint" and "holy" as legitimate, and condemned the desecration, burning, or looting of churches in the quest to suppress icon veneration. The Germanic Pagans have swept through Western Europe. Two weeks later, Bretagne was instead ordered to steam at high speed to Bizerte, to join the Force de Raid with Provence. (2012) "Opposition to Iconoclasm as Grounds for Civil War", in, This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 11:50. The conning tower was protected with 314 mm (12.4 in) thick armor plating. At maximum speed, the ships could steam for 600 nautical miles (1,100 km; 690 mi); at 13 kn (24 km/h; 15 mph), the range increased significantly to 2,800 nmi (5,200 km; 3,200 mi) A further reduction in speed to 10 kn (19 km/h; 12 mph) correspondingly increased the range to 4,600 nmi (8,500 km; 5,300 mi). He is, however, an adherent of iconoclasm, an orthodox heresy. [10] In 1935, "Lorraine" had her center main battery turret replaced with an aircraft catapult and a hangar for three aircraft. [16] The Emperor was personally active in the theological debate; evidence exists for him composing thirteen treatises, two of which survive in fragmentary form. Though Constantine was unable to destroy the Bulgar state, or impose a lasting peace, he restored imperial prestige in the Balkans. The Superior Naval Council (Conseil supérieur de la Marine) ordered the construction department to prepare designs for a 23,500-metric-ton (23,100-long-ton; 25,900-short-ton) ship armed with twelve 340 mm (13.4 in) guns in six twin gun turrets. While the sparsely populated inland regions were conquered fairly swiftly, the Romans … The fall of Western Rome destroyed a people. I went into a game of CK2 with the intention of starting from beginning to end, I wanted a fairly relaxed run so planned to just play as Lombardy (to become Italy) as a vassal of the Byzantine Empire. The superfiring turrets were less well protected, with 270 mm thick sides. [2] The total weight of armor was 7,614 t (7,494 long tons; 8,393 short tons). Lorraine followed at the Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire shipyard in St. Nazaire almost six months later on 7 November 1912. Basil A. CostantinoMount Laurel - age 64 years, formerly of Fairview, passed away on June 30, 2018. [11], The ship's main battery consisted of ten 340mm/45 Modèle 1912 guns in five twin gun turrets. Rv. The Byzantines control Egypt, and remain Hellenistic Pagans. Lorraine was disarmed by the British in Alexandria and recommissioned in 1942 to serve with the Free French Naval Forces. Cedrenus records that Emperor Konstantinos VIII, after his accession (in 1025), sent "Romani Sclyri filio, patricio Basilio" against "Prusianum Bulgarorum magistrum ac bucellariorum præfectum"[1449]. Constantine V: So these barbaroi think of themselves as Carthaginians. Das Gesetzbuch Leons III. [6], In June 742, while Constantine was crossing Asia Minor to campaign on the eastern frontier against the Umayyad Caliphate under Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, his brother-in-law Artabasdos, husband of his older sister, Anna, rebelled. Bretagne and Provence were similarly modified after the end of the war in 1919. The council agreed with Constantine's religious policy on images, declaring them anathema, and it secured the election of a new iconoclast patriarch. 1 Maria (?) Konstantinos Poulas University of Patras Verified email at upatras.gr. During World War I, a pair of 75 mm (3.0 in) guns were added. [65] The life and actions of Constantine, if freed from the distortion caused by the adulation of his soldiers and the demonisation of iconodule writers, show that he was an effective administrator and gifted general, but he was also autocratic, uncompromising and sometimes needlessly harsh. [20] Lorraine returned to service with the Mediterranean Squadron in 1923. Add to wishlist. Constantine's son Leo was the first child born here, and thereby obtained the title porphyrogénnētos (born in the purple) the ultimate accolade of legitimacy for an imperial prince or princess. In this he made use of the 'circus factions', which controlled the competing teams of charioteers and their supporters, had widespread social influence, and could mobilise large numbers of the citizenry. Constantine V (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, romanized: Konstantinos; July, 718 AD – 14 September 775 AD) was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775. Using this obscene name, they spread the rumour that as an infant he had defiled his own baptism by defaecating in the font, or on the imperial purple cloth with which he was swaddled. On becoming aware of an iconodule influenced conspiracy directed at himself, Constantine reacted uncompromisingly; in 765, eighteen high dignitaries were paraded in the hippodrome charged with treason, they were variously executed, blinded or exiled. All three ships were coal-fired. Three months later Constantine defeated Artabasdos' son Niketas and his Armeniac troops at Modrina and headed for Constantinople. Horizontal protection consisted of three armored decks; the main deck was 30 to 40 mm (1.2 to 1.6 in) thick. Religious strife and controversy was a prominent feature of his reign. She served as a training ship for much of 1943 until a major refit at the end of the year to prepare her to participate in Operation Dragoon, the invasion of southern France. [15] Two were placed on the conning tower and one was placed on each main battery turret. [25] Two of her main guns were emplaced as coastal batteries outside Toulon. At the end of his reign the empire had strong finances, a capable army that was proud of its successes and a church that appeared to be subservient to the political establishment. Select options. 688 Theodora, augousta porphyrogennetos (type 1) no. Lorraine and Provence were reduced to reserve status in 1922, and the latter went into drydock for a major overhaul. [6] The Greek Navy ordered a battleship to be named Vasilefs Konstantinos to the same design from AC de St Nazaire Penhoet. [19][20][21], The synod of Hieria was followed by a campaign to remove images from the walls of churches and to purge the court and bureaucracy of iconodules. The three ships saw limited service during World War I, and were primarily occupied with containing the Austro-Hungarian Navy in the Adriatic Sea. - d. Given by God Himself. ... V Varlet, K Farsalinos, M Augsburger, A Thomas, JF Etter. (eds. [28][29][30], Constantine carried forward the administrative and fiscal reforms initiated by his father Leo III. Bretagne was laid down at the Arsenal de Brest shipyard in Brest on 22 July 1912. [11] In January 1919, after the end of the war, Lorraine was sent to Cattaro to guard the Austro-Hungarian fleet. Nikephoros Botaneiates, despotes (type 2) ᾿Ιησοῦς Χριστός / Νικηφόρῳ δεσπότῃ | τῷ Βοτανειάτῃ . [15], Constantine questioned the legitimacy of any representation of God or Christ. Constantine retired to Bithynia to avoid the disease and, after it had run its course, resettled people from mainland Greece and the Aegean islands in Constantinople to replace those who had perished. The concept of a 'purple birth' predated the construction of the chamber, but it gained a literal aspect from the chamber's existence. In the 9th century, following the ultimate triumph of the iconodules, Constantine's remains were removed from the imperial sepulchre in the Church of the Holy Apostles. Manuel Bragationi (Μανουήλ Βαγρατιόνι) (3185-3260) was a prominent Ypostrategos (Major General) of the Ruthene Imperial Army, one of the most important conquerors of the Enosis and Exarchos of the Grand Principate of Thracia, was the leader of the Bragationi Dinasty. The Roman cause, the restoring of the old empire, was a divinely inspired mission. Nikephoros (Nikephoritzes), sebastophoros doux of Antioch and man of the basileus (type 2) Konstantinos 10. The three ships largely remained in port, though Provence was repeatedly used to intimidate the government of Greece, which favored Germany during the war. [44][45][46][47], With Constantine militarily occupied elsewhere, and the continuance of imperial influence in the West being given a low priority, the Lombard king Aistulf captured Ravenna in 755, ending over two centuries of Byzantine rule in central Italy. Gagarin, Michael(2000b) “The Legislation of Demetrius of Phaleron and the Transformation of Athenian Law,” in Demetrius of Phalerum: Text, Translation and Discussion. In 1940, the 100 mm guns were removed to arm the new battleship Richelieu, and eight 75 mm M1922 guns replaced them. Each turret had 2-metre (6 ft 7 in) rangefinder under an armoured hood at the rear of the turret. Birthdate: circa 980. Kormisosh of Bulgaria raided as far as the Anastasian Wall (the outermost defence of the approaches to Constantinople) but was defeated in battle by Constantine, who inaugurated a series of nine successful campaigns against the Bulgarians in the next year, scoring a victory over Kormisosh's successor Vinekh at Marcellae. She provided gunfire support during Operation Dragoon, the invasion of southern France, and shelled German fortresses in northern France. und Konstantinos’ V., Frankfurt am Main, Löwenklau-Gesellschaft, 1983 (Forschungen zur byzantinischen Rechtsgeschichte 10). Showing 1–12 of 20 results. Permalink. Sale Catalogue: Sternberg 25: 487 . and Basileios I Makedonios, basileus Rhomaiôn were divorced in 865. Read Full Summary The Third Volantene War began in 1207, shortly after the coronation of Konstantinos XI Komnenos as Basileus. They nevertheless salvaged the ship starting in July 1943. Konstantinos VI (771–797) oli Bysantin keisari vuosina 780–797. [10] Provence had her four forward 138 mm guns removed in 1919, and was equipped similarly to Bretagne. Riccardo Polosa Professore Ordinario di Medicina Interna, Università degli studi di Catania Verified email at unict.it. Of course those who were talking about land war were also talking about the Maginot Line… Teachings and Initiation System” Program. She was then ordered to join Lorraine in Force X, to be based in Alexandria to operate in concert with the British Mediterranean Fleet. [40] Constantine also rebuilt the prominent church of Hagia Eirene in Constantinople, which had been badly damaged by the earthquake that hit Constantinople in 740. Following a disastrous defeat of the Byzantines by the Bulgarian Khan Krum in 811 at the Battle of Pliska, troops of the tagmata broke into Constantine's tomb and implored the dead emperor to lead them once more. Bretagne remained at the bottom of Mers-el-Kébir until she was raised for scrapping in 1952 and broken up. HELPS Word-studies. In those provinces closest to the seat of government this measure increased the number of strategoi and diminished the resources available to any single one, making rebellion less easy to accomplish. Death: after 1033. He achieved this by training for serious warfare a corps of largely ceremonial guards units that were attached to the imperial palace, and expanding their numbers. This began the Frankish involvement in Italy that eventually established Pepin's son Charlemagne as Roman Emperor in the West, and also instigated papal temporal rule in Italy with the creation of the Papal States. On his father's death, Constantine succeeded as sole emperor on 18 June 741. [27], Assiduous in courting popularity, Constantine consciously employed the hippodrome, scene of the ever-popular chariot races, to influence the populace of Constantinople. 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